ARTICLES IN THREE SENTENCES
Extracellular vesicles mediate the communication between multiple myeloma and bone marrow microenvironment in a NOTCH dependent way
The prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM) is strongly affected by the connection between MM cells and the bone marrow niche, with a crucial role being played by MM-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). Giannandrea and colleagues used in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the role of EV-derived NOTCH2 in stimulating the protumorigenic behavior of endothelial cells and osteoclast progenitors. They demonstrated that MM cells may trigger tumor angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis by transferring NOTCH2 receptor via EV; therefore, targeting the NOTCH pathway may represent a treatment strategy in MM.
Increased visceral fat distribution and body composition impact cytokine release syndrome onset and severity after CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy in advanced B-cell malignancies
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is associated with a distinct toxicity profile that includes cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Cordas dos Santos and colleagues analyzed the influence of anthropometric and body composition measurements on CAR T-cell-related immunotoxicity in 64 patients receiving CD19-directed CAR T cells for relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies. They found that body composition changes, in particular increased visceral adipose tissue, represent an additional risk factor for severe and early CRS, and suggested integrating them into established risk models.
The gut microbiome, an ecosystem formed by commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, may affect both immune function and carcinogenesis. In a study focusing on the fecal microbiome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Faitová et al. investigated perturbations in gut microbial composition, and tried to characterize a potential signature for CLL-related gut dysbiosis. They showed less microbiome diversity and less enrichment of short chain fatty acid-producing bacterial taxa in the CLL microbiome compared to that of healthy controls and, therefore, hypothesized a connection between the microbiome and immune dysfunction in CLL.
ETV6-related thrombocytopenia (ETV6-RT) is caused by germline heterozygous mutations of ETV6, a gene encoding a hematopoietic transcriptional repressor. At least 15 different ETV6 variants have been associated with thrombocytopenia, although their pathogenic role has not always been clarified. Faleschini and colleagues demonstrated that mutant transcription factors do not enter the nucleus to exert their activity, thus increasing our knowledge on the molecular basis of ETV6-RT.
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