Chemoimmunotherapy followed by consolidative high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue was a standard upfront treatment for fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in first remission; however, treatment paradigms are evolving in the era of novel therapies. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with known efficacy in treating MCL. We conducted a single-center, investigator-initiated, phase II study of immunochemotherapy incorporating lenalidomide, without autologous stem cell transplant consolidation, enriching for patients with high-risk MCL (NCT02633137). Patients received four cycles of lenalidomide-R-CHOP, two cycles of R-HiDAC, and six cycles of R-lenalidomide. The primary endpoint was rate of 3-year progression-free survival. We measured MRD using an NGS-based assay after each phase of treatment and at 6 months following end-of-treatment. We enrolled 49 patients of which 47 were response evaluable. By intent-to-treat, rates of overall and complete response were equivalent at 88% (43/49), one patient with stable disease, and two patients had disease progression during study; 3-year progression-free survival was 63% (primary endpoint not met) and differed by TP53 status (78% WT versus 38% ALT, P = 0.043). MRD status was prognostic and predicted long-term outcomes following R-HiDAC and at 6 months following end-of-treatment. In a high-dose therapy-sparing, intensive approach, we achieved favorable outcomes in TP53-wildtype MCL, including high-risk cases. We confirmed that sequential MRD assessment is a powerful prognostic tool in patients with MCL.
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