We retrospectively studied 97 AML patients with trisomy 19 (tris-19; median age at diagnosis 57 years; range, 17-83 years) treated between 2001 and 2019 within two multicenter study groups. Tris-19 occurred solely in 10 (10.5%), with additional abnormalities in non-complex karyotypes in 8 (8%) and within complex karyotypes in 79 (82%) patients. Altogether, karyotypes characterized by trisomies only were present in 27 (28%) patients. Data on response and outcome of intensively treated patients were available in 92 patients and median follow-up was 6.4 years (95%-CI, 2.9-9.0 years). Complete remission (CR) after induction therapy was achieved in 52% (n=48) and early death rate was 10% (n=9). Notably, patients with tris-19 as sole abnormality had a CR rate of 89%. An allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) was performed in 34 (35%) patients (CR, n=19; active disease, n=15). Five-year relapse-free and overall survival (OS) rates were 26% (95%-CI, 16-43%) and 20% (95%-CI, 13-31%), respectively. OS rates were significantly higher in patients with tris-19 as sole abnormality or within karyotypes characterized by trisomies only (P=0.05). An Andersen-Gill model including allo-HCT as a time dependent covariable on OS revealed tris-19 as sole abnormality or within karyotypes characterized by trisomies only as favorable factors (HR, 0.47; P=0.021); higher age at diagnosis had an adverse impact (10 years difference; HR, 1.29; P=0.002), whereas allo-HCT had no beneficial impact (OR, 1.45; P=0.21). In our cohort, patients with tris-19 as sole abnormality or within karyotypes characterized by trisomies only had a high CR rate and better clinical outcome.
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