The identification of patients at high risk of herpes zoster (HZ) requiring a prevention strategy with antiviral prophylaxis and anti-HZ vaccine is a clinically relevant issue in patients with immunological impairment. Absence of trials comparing vaccination to pharmacological prophylaxis or defining their sequential use makes the optimal prevention strategy uncertain. This article presents the results of group discussion among an ad hoc constituted panel of experts aimed to review the literature regarding antiviral prophylaxis and vaccine efficacy and safety in populations with malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases, and submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The panel used the consensus methodology and proposed solutions for prevention strategy producing advice for the management of the most relevant unmet clinical needs. Such a comprehensive overview aims to support at the practice of HZ pharmacological and vaccine prevention and informing the design and the need of implementation of new studies in the field.
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