STAT5B has been reported as a recurrent mutation in myeloid neoplasms (MNs) with eosinophilia, but the overall frequency and importance across a spectrum of MNs are largely unknown. We conducted a multicenter study on a series of 82 MNs with STAT5B mutations detected by next-generation sequencing. The estimated frequency of STAT5B mutation in MNs was low, <0.5%, and mutations were detected in all categories of MNs, including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 28%), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 26%), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN, 18%), Ph-negative classic MPN (12%), systemic mastocytosis (1%), and notably a high frequency of chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS, 15%). STAT5B mutations occurred preferentially in the SH2 domain (95%), involved 12 different codons, with the N642H hotspot being the most common (78%). Co-mutations were present in all cases and clonal hierarchy analysis showed that STAT5B mutations tended to be subclonal in AML, MPN, and MDS, but frequently dominant/co-dominant in CEL-NOS (83%), followed by MDS/MPN (40%). Across the group, eosinophilia and/or basophilia were common (41%), frequently observed in cases in which STAT5B mutations were detected at initial diagnosis (p<0.0001), with a high variant allele frequency (median 42.5%, p=0.0001), as a dominant/codominant clone (p<0.0001), involving canonical N642H (p=0.0607), and associated with fewer co-mutations (p=0.0009). Our data show that STAT5B mutation characteristics and importance differ among MNs, but if present as a dominant mutation and detected at initial diagnosis, it appears to be a driver mutation in a subgroup of chronic myeloid neoplasms, preferentially promoting a proliferation of eosinophils and basophils.
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