T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) are rare aggressive hematological malignancies. Current treatment consists of intensive chemotherapy, leading to 80% overall survival but are associated with severe toxic side effects. Furthermore, 10-20% of patients still die from relapsed or refractory disease providing a strong rationale for more specific, targeted therapeutic strategies with less toxicities. Here, we report a novel MYH9::PDGFRB fusion in a T-LBL patient and demonstrate that this fusion product is constitutively active and sufficient to drive oncogenic transformation in vitro and in vivo. Expanding our analysis more broadly across T-ALL, we found a T-ALL cell line and multiple patient derived xenograft models with PDGFRB hyperactivation in the absence of a fusion, with high PDGFRB expression in TLX3 and HOXA T-ALL molecular subtypes. To target this PDGFRB hyperactivation, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of a selective PDGFRB inhibitor, CP-673451, both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated sensitivity if the receptor is hyperactivated. Altogether, our work reveals that hyperactivation of PDGFRB is an oncogenic driver in T-ALL/T-LBL and that screening T-ALL/TLBL patients for phosphorylated PDGFRB levels can serve as a biomarker for PDGFRB inhibition as a novel targeted therapeutic strategy in their treatment regimen.
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