Over the past two decades, there have been significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma which has led to an improvement in overall survival (OS) (1,2). However, a notable proportion of patients continue to experience early mortality (EM), defined as two years from the time of diagnosis. This raises the possibility that improvements in myeloma survival have not extended equally to all groups. Using the latest data drawn from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of patients in the United States spanning 2000-2019, we study impact of important sociodemographic factors on EM. Through regression modeling, we demonstrate that patients diagnosed from 2000-2005, of older age, male sex, and of certain racial minority status (non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic) have higher odds of EM. Of these factors, minority status contributed to worse 2-year overall survival as well. We evaluate whether income, as a surrogate to access to care, could potentially explain this finding, but find that race has a distinct relationship with EM that is not modified by income. This is further reinforced by subgroup analysis. After characterizing groups vulnerable to EM, we examine reasons for these disparities and potential avenues to address them.
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