6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) serves as the backbone in the maintenance regimens of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We aimed to evaluate the influence of NUDT15 gene polymorphism on the risk of myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity and interruption of 6-MP, as well as treatment efficacy and dose of 6-MP in ALL patients.
A total of 24 studies with 3374 patients were included in this meta-analysis. We found 9-fold higher risk of 6-MP induced leukopenia (OR: 9.00, 95% CI: 3.73-21.74) and 2.5-fold higher risk of 6-MP induced neutropenia (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72-3.69) for NUDT15 c.415C>T variant carriers in the dominant model. Moreover, we found that the dose intensity of 6-MP in ALL patients with one NUDT15 c.415C>T variant alleles (CT) was 19% less than that in wild type patients (CC) (MD: 19.43%, 95% CI: -25.36%, -13.51%). The tolerable dose intensity of 6-MP in NUDT15 c.415C>T homozygote variant (TT) and heterozygote variant (CT) carriers was 49% and 15% less than that in wild type patients, respectively. The NUDT15 c.415C>T variants group (CT+TT) had 7 times (OR: 6.98, 95% CI: 2.83-17.22) higher risk of developing 6-MP intolerance than the CC group. However, NUDT15 c.415C>T polymorphism did not appear significantly associated with hepatotoxicity, treatment interruption or relapse incidence.
We concluded that NUDT15 c.415C>T was a good predictor for 6-MP induced myelosuppression in ALL patients. The dose intensity of 6-MP in ALL patients with NUDT15 c.415C>T variants was significantly lower than that in wild type patients. This research provided a basis for further investigation into relations between NUDT15 gene and adverse reaction, treatment efficacy and dose intensity of 6-MP.
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