Treatment options for patients with secondary and myeloid related changes acute myeloid leukemia (sAML and AML-MRC) aged 60-75 years old are scarce and unsuitable. A pivotal trial showed that CPX-351 improved complete remission with/without incomplete recovery (CR/CRi) and overall survival (OS) as compared with standard 3+7. We retrospectively analyze outcomes of 765 patients with sAML and AML-MRC aged 60-75 years treated with intensive chemotherapy (IC), reported to the PETHEMA registry before CPX-351 became available. The CR/CRi rate was 48%, median OS 7.6 months (CI95%, 6.7-8.5) and event-free survival (EFS) 2.7 months (CI95%, 2-3.3), without differences between IC regimens and AML type. Multivariate analyses identified age ≥70 years, ECOG≥1 as independent adverse prognostic factors for CR/CRi and OS, while favorable/intermediate cytogenetic risk and NPM1 were favorable prognostic factors. Patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT), auto-HSCT, and those who completed more consolidation cycles showed improved OS. This large study suggests that classical intensive chemotherapy could lead to similar CR/CRi rates with slightly shorter median OS than CPX-351.
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