Intracellular uptake of adenosine is essential for optimal erythroid commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The role of adenosine signaling is well documented in the regulation of blood flow, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell regeneration. However, the role of adenosine signaling in hematopoiesis remains unclear. In this study we show that adenosine signaling inhibits the proliferation of erythroid precursors by activating the p53 pathway and hampers the terminal erythroid maturation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of specific adenosine receptors promotes myelopoiesis. Overall, our findings indicate that extracellular adenosine could be a new actor in the regulation of hematopoiesis.
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