Measurable residual disease (MRD) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an independent established prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Several methods exist to evaluate the presence of residual leukemia cells, but how these are used best in combination is unclear. To examine how residual cytogenetic abnormalities and MRD testing by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) may refine risk assessment before HCT, we analyzed 506 adults with cytogenetically abnormal AML who underwent both routine karyotyping and MFC MRD testing before receiving a first allograft while in morphologic remission. Testing for residual cytogenetic abnormalities and MFC MRD identified four groups of patients with differential relapse-free survival (RFS, hazard ratio [HR]=1.63 for Cytoabnormal/MFCnegative [P=0.01, n=63], HR=3.24 for Cytonormal/MFCpositive [P<0.001, n=60], and HR=5.50 for Cytoabnormal/MFCpositive [P<0.001, n=56] with Cytonormal/MFCnegative as reference [n=327]) and overall survival [OS, HR=1.55 for Cytoabnormal/MFCnegative [P=0.03], HR=2.69 for Cytonormal/MFCpositive [P<0.001], and HR=4.15 for Cytoabnormal/MFCpositive [P<0.001] with Cytonormal/MFCnegative as reference). Results were similar for patients who received myeloablative or non-myeloablative conditioning. C-statistic values were higher, indicating higher accuracy, when using pre-HCT cytogenetic and MFC MRD information together for prediction of relapse, RFS, and OS, rather than using either test result alone. This study indicates that residual cytogenetic abnormalities and MFC MRD testing provide complementary prognostic information for post-HCT outcomes in patients with cytogenetically abnormal AML undergoing allogeneic HCT.
Figures & Tables
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.