Complex karyotype (CK) at chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) diagnosis is a negative biomarker of adverse outcome. Since the impact of CK and its subtypes, namely type-2 CK (CK with major structural abnormalities) or high-CK (CK with C5 chromosome abnormalities), on the risk of developing Richter syndrome (RS) is unknown, we carried out a multicenter reallife retrospective study to test its prognostic impact.
Among 540 CLL patients, 107 harbored a CK at CLL diagnosis, 78 were classified as CK2 and 52 as high-CK. Twenty-eight patients developed RS during a median follow-up of 6.7 years. At the time of CLL diagnosis, CK2 and high-CK were more common and predicted the highest risk of RS transformation, together with advanced Binet stage, unmutated (U)-IGHV, 11q-, TP53 abnormalities. We integrated these variables into a hierarchical model: high-CK and/or CK2 patients showed a 10-year time to RS (TTRS) of 31%; U-IGHV/11q-/TP53 abnormalities/Binet stage B-C patients had a 10-year TTRS of 12%; while mutated (M)-IGHV without CK and TP53 disruption a 10-year TTRS of 3% (p<0.0001).
We herein demonstrated that CK landscape at CLL diagnosis allows to refine the risk of RS transformation and we recapitulated clinico-biological variables into a prognostic model.
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