Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) poses a major therapeutic challenge, and the relative ability of contemporary regimens to treat CNS involvement remains uncertain. We described prognostic significance of CNS involvement and incidence of CNS recurrence/progression after contemporary immunochemotherapy using real-world clinicopathologic data on adults with BL diagnosed between 2009 and 2018 across 30 US institutions. We examined associations between baseline CNS involvement, patient characteristics, complete response (CR) rates, and survival. We also examined risk factors for CNS recurrence. Nineteen percent (120/641) of patients (age 18-88 years) had CNS involvement. It was independently associated with HIV infection, poor performance status, involvement of ≥2 extranodal sites, or bone marrow involvement. First-line regimen selection was unaffected by CNS involvement (P=0.93). Patients with CNS disease had significantly lower rates of CR (59% versus 77% without; P<0.001), worse 3-year progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.06, P=0.004) and overall survival (aHR, 1.62, 95%CI, 1.18-2.22, P=0.003). The 3-year cumulative incidence of CNS recurrence was 6% (95%CI, 4-8%). It was significantly lower among patients receiving other regimens (CODOX-M/IVAC, 4%, or hyperCVAD/MA, 3%) compared with DA-EPOCH-R (13%; adjusted sub-HR, 4.38, 95%CI, 2.16-8.87, P<0.001). Baseline CNS involvement in BL is relatively common and portends inferior prognosis independent of first-line regimen selection. In real-world practice, regimens with highly CNS-penetrant intravenous systemic agents were associated with a lower risk of CNS recurrence. This finding may be influenced by observed suboptimal adherence to the strict CNS staging and intrathecal therapy procedures incorporated in DA-EPOCH-R.
Figures & Tables
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.