Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a major threat to successful outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Advances in prophylaxis and supportive care have taken place over the years. The aim of this study is to test whether incidence and mortality of aGvHD have been reduced over time.
102 557 patients with a median age of 47.6 years with malignancies after first allogeneic sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplant were studied in the following periods: 1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. Findings: 100-day-incidences of aGvHD grades II-IV decreased from 40%, to 38%, 32%, 29% and 28% over calendar time (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis URD, not in CR at transplant or untreated, and female donor for male recipient were associated with increased risk whereas use of ATG/alemtuzumab decreased aGvHD incidence. Median follow-up was 214, 169, 127, 81 and 30 months for periods analyzed. 3-year-survival after aGvHD grades II-IV increased significantly from 38% to 40%, 43%, 44%, and 45%. In multivariate analysis URD, not in CR at transplant, peripheral blood as stem cell source, female donor for male recipient, and use of ATG/alemtuzumab were associated with increased mortality whereas reduced-intensity conditioning with lower one. Mortality increased with increasing patients‘ age but decreased in the recent cohorts.
Our analysis demonstrates that aGvHD decreased over the last decades, and also that survival of patients affected with aGvHD improved.
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