Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo- HSCT) have improved in the recent decade; however, infections and graft-versus-host disease remain two leading complications significantly contributing to early transplant-related mortality. In past years, the human intestinal microbial composition (microbiota) has been found to be associated with various disease states, including cancer, response to cancer immunotherapy and to modulate the gut innate and adaptive immune response. In the setting of allo-HSCT, the intestinal microbiota diversity and composition appear to have an impact on infection risk, mortality and overall survival. Microbial metabolites have been shown to contribute to the health and integrity of intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation, thus mitigating graft-versus-host disease in animal models. While the cause-andeffect relationship between the intestinal microbiota and transplant-associated complications has not yet been fully elucidated, the above findings have already resulted in the implementation of various interventions aiming to restore the intestinal microbiota diversity and composition. Among others, these interventions include the administration of fecal microbiota transplantation. The present review, based on published data, is intended to define the role of the latter approach in the setting of allo-HSCT.
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