After more than 60 years of research in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), this therapy has advanced from one that was declared dead in the 1960s to a standard treatment of otherwise fatal malignant and non-malignant blood diseases. To date, close to 1.5 million hematopoietic cell transplants have been performed in more than 1,500 transplantation centers worldwide. This review will highlight the enormous efforts by numerous investigators throughout the world who have brought the experimental field of HCT to clinical reality, examine ongoing challenges, and provide insights for the future.
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