AbstractCommon variable immunodeficiency and other late-onset immunodeficiencies often co-manifest with autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. The pathogenesis of most cases is elusive, as only a minor subset harbors known monogenic germline causes. The involvement of both B and T cells is however implicated. To study whether somatic mutations in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells associate with immunodeficiency, we recruited 17 patients and 21 healthy controls. Eight patients had late-onset common variable immunodeficiency and nine patients other immunodeficiency and/or severe autoimmunity. In total, autoimmunity occurred in 94% and lymphoproliferation in 65%. We performed deep sequencing of 2533 immune-associated genes from CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Deep T-cell receptor beta sequencing was used to characterize CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell receptor repertoires. The prevalence of somatic mutations was 65% in all immunodeficiency patients, 75% in common variable immunodeficiency and 48% in controls. Clonal hematopoiesis-associated variants in both CD4+ and CD8+ cells occurred in 24% of immunodeficiency patients. Results demonstrated mutations in known tumor suppressors, oncogenes, and genes that are critical for immune- and proliferative functions, such as STAT5B (two patients), C5AR1 (two patients), KRAS (one patient), and NOD2 (one patient). Additionally, as a marker of T-cell receptor repertoire perturbation, common variable immunodeficiency patients harbored increased frequencies of clones with identical complementarity determining region 3 sequences despite unique nucleotide sequences when compared to controls. In conclusion, somatic mutations in genes implicated for autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation are common in CD4+ and CD8+ cells of patients with immunodeficiency. They may contribute to immune dysregulation in a subset of immunodeficiency patients.
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Ferrata Storti Foundation, Pavia, Italy
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