BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and is thought to contribute to the failure of chemotherapy. Zosuquidar trihydochloride (Z.3HCL) is a potent and selective inhibitor of P-gp which rapidly and effectively inhibits drug efflux. DESIGN AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of Z.3HCL and determine its influence on P-gp activity. Sixteen AML patients were entered into a phase 1 dose ranging clinical trial of Z.3HCL, co-administered intravenously with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C). Clinical outcomes, toxicity abd adverse events were assessed. P-gp function was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro cytotoxicity was studied using the MTT assay. RESULTS: Eleven patients achieved a complete remission and one a partial remission with a median survival of 559 (range 38-906) days. Non-hematologic grade 3 and 4 toxicities were seen in 4 patients. Z.3HCL infusion was associated with rapid inhibition of Rh123 efflux in CD56+ cells in 16/16 patients and in CD33+ cells from 6/10 patients. The median inhibition was 95% for CD56+ cells and 85.25% for CD33+ cells was significantly elevated in 6/16 patients. The median IC50, using a MTT assay for daunorubicin, decreased significantly between Z.3HCL modulated and unmodulated cells (n=11,153 and 247 ng/mL respectively, p=0.01). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The modulator Z.3HCL is a specific inhibitor of P-gp efflux and can be given safely to patients with AML in combination with induction doses of conventional cytotoxic drugs.
Vol. 89 No. 7 (2004): July, 2004 : Clinical Trial, Phase I
Ferrata Storti Foundation, Pavia, Italy
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