Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) has a very poor prognosis. Determinants of clinical outcomes and optimal treatment remain uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed 108 cases of AML with inv(3)/t(3;3) and evaluated clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes: 53 newly diagnosed (ND) AML and 55 relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML. Median age was 55 years. White blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 20 x 109/L and platelet count ≥ 140 x 109/L was observed in 25% and 32% of ND patients, respectively. Anomalies involving chromosome 7 were identified in 56% of patients. The most frequently mutated genes were SF3B1, PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS and ASXL1. In ND patients, the composite complete remission (CRc) rate was 46% overall; 46% with high-intensity treatments and 47% with low-intensity treatments. The 30-day mortality was 14% and 0%, with high- and low-intensity treatment, respectively. In R/R patients, the CRc rate was 14%. Venetoclax based-regimens were associated with a CRc rate of 33%. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 8.8% and 7.1% in ND and R/R patients, respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 81.7% overall. Older age, high WBC, high peripheral blast count, secondary AML and KRAS, ASXL1, DNMT3A mutations were associated with worse OS in univariable analyses. The 5-year OS rates were 44% and 6% with or without HSCT in CR1, respectively. AML with inv(3)/t(3;3) is associated with low CR rates, very high risk of relapse and dismal long-term survival. Intensive chemotherapy and HMA provide similar rates of remission and patients achieving CR benefit from HSCT in CR1.
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