Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a rare and life-threatening disease. Vaccination has been reported to be a trigger of onset and relapse of autoimmune diseases. We evaluated after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination 32 adult patients previously diagnosed with iTTP by means of weekly monitoring of complete blood count and ADAMTS13 testing. Thirty of 32 patients received at least one dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, the remaining two received Moderna. A total of five patients, all vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech, had a biochemical relapse at a median post-vaccination time of 15 days following the second or third vaccine dose, presenting with unmeasurable ADAMTS13 activity and a median anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibody value of 34 U/ml. Four of five cases had concomitant clinical relapse and were treated with corticosteroids alone or daily sessions of plasma exchange and caplacizumab, while one patient was closely monitored with ADAMTS13 with no onset of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Although the benefits of vaccination exceed its potential risks, clinicians should be aware that iTTP relapse might follow COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, laboratory and clinical monitoring of iTTP patients should be done in the first post-vaccination month, in order to promptly diagnose and treat any relapse.
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