AbstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The residual tumor cells remaining after completion of standard chemotherapy and radiation treatment in B lymphoma patients, may be eradicated by active immunotherapy that stimulates tumor-specific T lymphocytes. Irradiated autologous lymphoma cells expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may serve as a potential tumor vaccine, provided that they are effectively targeted to the antigen-presenting cells (APC). We propose exploiting the natural anti-Gal antibody in order to target vaccinating tumor cells to APC. Anti-Gal constitutes 1% of IgG in human serum and interacts specifically with the alpha-gal epitope (Galalpha1-3Galphalbeta1-4GlcNAc-R). DESIGN AND METHODS: Alpha-gal epitopes were synthesized in vitro on the membrane of primary lymphoma cells by using the recombinant glycosylation enzyme alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT). Processed tumor cells were opsonized by purified anti-Gal antibodies and studied for uptake (phagocytosis) by APC including monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Cross-presentation of tumor antigens after phagocytosis of processed MHC-I negative lymphoma cells was measured by activation of a tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell line. RESULTS: We demonstrate synthesis of alpha-gal epitopes on freshly isolated B lymphoma cells of various types following the use of the recombinant enzyme alpha1,3GT. The subsequent binding of anti-Gal to the de novo synthesized alphagal epitopes opsonizes these tumor cells for effective uptake by macrophages and dendritic cells, through phagocytosis mediated by FcgammaR1 (CD64). Moreover, anti-Gal-mediated phagocytosis resulted in cross-presentation of TAA by dendritic cells. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that immunization with irradiated autologous lymphoma cells processed to express alpha-gal epitopes will result in anti-Gal-mediated, in vivo targeting of the autologous tumor vaccine to APC.
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Vol. 90 No. 5 (2005): May, 2005 : Articles
Ferrata Storti Foundation, Pavia, Italy
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