AbstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mutations of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase are involved in the constitutive activation and development of human hematologic malignancies. Gain-of-function mutations in the second intracellular kinase domain (TK2) and in the juxtamembrane domain are described in patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBFL) and are associated with leukocytosis. We evaluated the incidence of KIT mutation in 52 adult patients with de novo CBFL and in 49 FLT3/ITD-negative childhood patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), excluding cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. DESIGN AND METHODS: In order to analyze the role of KIT in CBFL we examined the KIT mutations in 52 adult CBFL, including 15 previously reported patients, and in 49 non-APL childhood AML patients using sensitive detection methods. We correlated our findings with the presence of trisomy 4 and investigated the relationship of the extra chromosome 4 with KIT mutations. RESULTS: Several kinds of gain-of-function KIT mutations were found in 24 of the 52 (46.1%) adult CBFL cases and 6 of the 49 (12.2%) non-APL childhood AML patients. KIT mutations were detected in 4 of the 8 adult patients and one childhood AML case bearing trisomy of chromosome 4 as either the sole cytogenetic aberration or a karyotypic aberration additional to t(8;21). In three of the trisomy 4 cases we demonstrated that trisomy 4 leads to duplication of the KIT mutated allele. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results underline that the KIT gene is activated in AML characterized by distinct cytogenetic and molecular genetic patterns and represents the most frequently mutated target in adult CBFL.
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Vol. 89 No. 8 (2004): August, 2004 : Articles
Ferrata Storti Foundation, Pavia, Italy
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