AbstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) has been shown to be well-tolerated and to reduce post-transplantation morbidity in adults undergoing HLA-identical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). There is however, limited experience in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, comparative multicenter trial using rhGM-CSF after allogeneic BMT in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study comprised 24 patients with ALL who received rhGM-CSF and 22 patients with ALL who did not receive rhGM-CSF. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic characteristics between the rhGM-CSF-treated and untreated groups. rhGM-CSF was given at a dose of 10 micrograms/kg/day infusion over 4 hours from day +1 until +28 or until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was > or = 1 x 10(9)/L. All patients received HLA-identical sibling marrow and cyclosporine alone for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. The number of cells infused was similar in both groups. A software program (Statview 4.0, Abacus Concept, Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA) was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The median of days to achieve ANC > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/L was shorter in the rhGM-CSF-treated patients (14 days vs 18.5 days; p < 0.0001). Patients who received rhGM-CSF had a lower incidence of grade III-IV mucositis. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients who received rhGM-CSF (31 days vs 45 days; p < 0.005). No differences in GvHD severity, relapse or survival were observed. At the dose and schedule used in the present study, rhGM-CSF was well-tolerated and no side effects were observed. INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: rhGM-CSF at a dose of 10 micrograms/kg/day in children with ALL undergoing allogeneic BMT is well tolerated, accelerates neutrophil and platelet engraftment, reduces the intensity and severity of mucositis and permits a more rapid discharge from hospital.
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Vol. 84 No. 2 (1999): February, 1999 : Clinical Trial
Ferrata Storti Foundation, Pavia, Italy
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