The introduction of new therapeutic agents in multiple myeloma (MM), including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies, has improved the outcomes of patients but, in parallel, has changed the frequency and epidemiology of thrombotic events. Now, thrombosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in MM patients, and optimal thromboprophylaxis is far from being reached. Moving from the recognition that the above issue represents an unmet clinical need, an Expert Panel assessed the scientific literature and composed a framework of recommendations for improving thrombosis control in patients candidates for active treatment for MM. The Panel generated clinical key questions using the criterion of clinical relevance through a Delphi process. It explored four domains, i.e., thrombotic risk factors and risk stratification, primary thromboprophylaxis, management of acute thrombotic events, and secondary thromboprophylaxis. The issued recommendations may assist hematologists in minimizing the risk of thrombosis and guarantee adherence to treatment in patients with MM candidates to active treatment.
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