The mobilization efficiency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM) to circulation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is dramatically dispersed in humans and mice with no mechanistic lead for poor mobilizers. The regulatory mechanism for mobilization efficiency by dietary fat was assessed in mice. Fat-free diet (FFD) for 2 weeks greatly increased mobilization compared to normal diet (ND). The BM mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), a receptor for lipid mediators, was markedly up-regulated by G-CSF in mice fed with ND and displayed strong positive correlation with widely scattered mobilization efficiency. It was hypothesized that BM fat ligand for PPARδ might inhibit mobilization. The PPARδ agonist inhibited mobilization in mice fed with ND and enhanced mobilization by FFD. Treatment with the PPARδ antagonist and chimeric mice with PPARδ+/- BM showed enhanced mobilization. Immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry revealed that BM PPARδ expression was enhanced by G-CSF mainly in mature/immature neutrophils. BM lipid mediator analysis revealed that G-CSF treatment and FFD resulted in the exhaustion of ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA induced the up-regulation of genes downstream of PPARδ, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), in mature/immature neutrophils in vitro and inhibited enhanced mobilization in mice fed with FFD in vivo. Treatment of wild-type mice with the anti-Angptl4 antibody enhanced mobilization together with BM vascular permeability. Collectively, PPARδ signaling in BM mature/immature neutrophils induced by dietary fatty acids negatively regulates mobilization, at least partially, via Angptl4 production.
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